Low Income Family Law Attorneys

A dispute that demands legal attention should be handled with professional care. The personal lives of people consist of issues like marriage, domestic partnerships, adoption, legitimacy, divorce, spousal abuse and child custody. For all the decisive phases in life, one might need to get help from a family law attorney. When an individual needs an attorney, they should take a look at the variety of legal specialties in order to select the right one. A family lawyer can step in to make certain everyone is protected.

There are several law firms fully dedicated to serve small business in every possible way. These firms cover a wide range of practices like business litigation law, copyright law, intellectual property law etc. Corporate law companies also help business when legal issues arise from employee or customer. Law firms offer different prepaid legal plans protecting not only business but also personal life. There are different legal plans offered by legal firms with flexible payment facility. In most of the large corporate a separate legal counsel body exists to combat these issues.

Regardless of the criminal offences a person is charged with, hiring the top criminal lawyers will definitely pay off for the good of the respective client. Criminal defense lawyers are always ready to help their clients in case they are charged with any sort of criminal offence. Since they are experts in their field of knowledge, they are able to provide high quality service to clients who need them. An experienced lawyer successfully deals with prosecutors in court and is able to prove a client innocent. These criminal lawyers can be permanently employed by the various jurisdictions with criminal law firms.

Divorce is usually one of the most traumatic experiences in a person’s life. Apart from being stressful and painful, a divorce proceeding also proves to be an extremely costly affair. Very often, people going through a divorce do not have sufficient resources to hire an expensive lawyer. Many certified divorce lawyers charge minimal fees when representing people belonging to middle-income and low-income groups. There are various non-profit organizations that provide free legal advice. They have experienced lawyers and attorneys who take care of such legal cases for free.

The real estate lawyers assist buyers and sellers of real estate and property by answering the questions they have regarding the legal aspects of real estate transactions. There are many real estate lawyer firms that also guide them through the entire process of buying or selling real estate. Real estate attorneys seek both individuals and companies as their clients. An experienced real estate lawyer would prepare the contracts favoring their client. Real estate lawyers specialize in laws relating to real estate and make sure that your interests as a seller are met in the transaction.

Bankruptcy has become quite common in today’s economic climate. A lawyer who specializes in bankruptcy filings has experience in the various aspects of bankruptcy proceedings. These lawyers are present to help people deal with legal issues from the beginning to the end of the struggle. One might be filing for bankruptcy for many different reasons. Licensed Bankruptcy lawyers work with the personal problems of the clients as if they were their own. These lawyers deal with families who have lost their jobs and spent nearly all their savings in order to maintain they homes.


How To Pay Child Support Online

Child support is an obligation that a parent with no custody must make towards a parent who has custody for the ongoing well being of a child that has been the result of a broken relationship or marriage. These arrangements are normally done in a court of law, as the follow up to a divorce, dissolution, marital separation and might include alimony.

The whole child support system relies on the obligation of one parent to support the child even if he or she is not part of a couple any more and the child is not living with both of the parties involved. When a split is involved the non custodian parent gains visitation rights and must also pay a fixed amount of money for the purpose of raising the child. Both parents must participate in their child development and the usage of money for that purpose is strictly tied to both parents, in such a manner that if one doesn’t pay for child care the other doesn’t too.

Different countries deal with this fact in different ways, whereas in some countries the court decides the sums of money and the arrangements in others the parents directly discuss the matter and solve all of the aspects involved between them, not involving any form of law or court.

Problems might occur when setting the ums of money involved because many of the parents cannot simply pay the amounts of money that have been settled in court. These are mostly men and are called “deadbeats” and there are a lot of non custodial parents that refuse to pay child support for various reasons: unable to pay due to the lack of money, claims that the money is not spent properly, denial of parenthood or the simple refusal to pay. Punishments have been issued for these cases and in most countries that punishment involves suspending an important legal document of the parent ( driver license, ID card…and so on ) ,and can go as far as retracting rights, huge fines, the deduction of money from salaries , tax increase and even jail.

Many people in the world owe a lot to the child support agencies and many try to elude the grip of the law but new and more effective methods are devised to catch these people, although many of them have claimed that the practice of forcefully detracting money from bank accounts and salaries is immoral and unconstitutional.

Like any other depth if the custodial parent chooses to forgive the depth that the other part has the debt goes directly to the state where it can be overlooked to, which is the case most times custodial parents choose to do this. Unfortunately many non custodial parents get used o this practice and completely ignore child support.


After Filing Chapter 7 Bankruptcy

Getting a loan after declaring bankruptcy is not impossible, but it is just more difficult. After all, bankruptcy is a large black mark on a person’s credit report. It is important to understand, though, that there is life after filing bankruptcy and part of that life involves being able to be approved for a loan after bankruptcy.

Before getting a loan after bankruptcy, ask yourself this: is a loan something that you really need to get? After all, your credit will be harder to repair if you take a loan out too soon after bankruptcy has been declared. You will also have to pay a much higher interest rate on this loan than you would have paid if you could have waited until your credit looked better to get the loan. The high interest rates mean that you will not be able to borrow very much and even then your loan period will not be very long.

If you have thought about these things and still think that a loan is right for you, then keep reading because getting a loan after bankruptcy is possible. It just takes some patience and perseverance. Keep these figures in mind: If you filed for Chapter Seven, you must wait for two years after filing your bankruptcy to apply for a loan. If you filed Chapter Thirteen, you must pay your creditors in full before a loan can be applied for. Generally speaking, these are the only two types of filings that can be done when filing a personal bankruptcy.

The best way to get approved for a loan after bankruptcy is to work hard and prove to lenders that you are no longer a credit risk. The best way to do this is to pay all of the bills you have left on time and to responsibly maintain a credit card. After you have at least a year of on-time payments to your utilities and credit card, you can ask these companies for reference letters to prove to potential lenders that you have learned how to be financially responsible. Another plus to waiting a year, is that by paying your bills on time for a year, your credit rating will raise considerably.

Keep in mind that the loan approval process is linked in large part to the amount of risk that the lender thinks he will have by loaning you money. If the risk is determined to be larger, the interest rate goes up and the term goes down. The fact that you have a bankruptcy on your credit report puts you in the higher risk category.

Many people who have declared bankruptcy feel ashamed of their situations, but there is no reason to feel this way. Obviously you did not make the decision to do this on a whim. For many people bankruptcy is the last possible option they can think of as a way out of their financial situation, and it should be looked at as a chance to start over. Yes, it puts a big black mark on your credit record. But your credit record is not permanent. It recycles itself almost continually and bankruptcies will eventually come off of that report. In fact, people who maintain a good credit standing for one and a half to two years after declaring bankruptcy can sometimes qualify for loans at the same interest rates they qualified for before their bankruptcy declaration.

Don’t lose faith, you will be able to get your finances in order and you will be able to find a loan after bankruptcy. It just takes time and patience, and the effort to dig a little deeper to find the lenders who specialize in these types of loans.


Social Security Long Term Disability

On this day people from all nation take note of the skills, achievements, contributions, and abilities of persons with disabilities in society. They promote a positive image of persons with disabilities, and who we are in the community at large through activities which both celebrate and raise awareness of this day declared in our recognition.
The theme for the International Day of Persons with Disabilities of the year 2008 is, “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Dignity and Justice for Most of Us,” a theme with a highly powerful message to the world of which we are a part. It is important to note that the year 2008 also brings the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Dignity and justice for all persons are universal principles, recognized by the United Nations, which also recognized that dignity and equality are inalienable human rights that all member of the human family has. With these principles, the United Nations has combined non-discrimination in order to guide their work over the past sixty years, using them in the creation of treaties such as the International Covenants on Human Rights, and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, as well as in creating the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
May 3rd of 2008 found the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol entered into force, both of which are legally binding instruments with legal obligations on the part of States to promote and protect the rights of persons with disabilities. Article 25 of the UDHR states that each person has, “the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age, or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.” There are other articles in the convention that expand on the rights to life, liberty and security. Article 28 specifically states that persons with disabilities have, “access by persons with disabilities and their families living in situations of poverty to assistance from the State with disability-related expenses, including adequate training, counseling, financial assistance and respite care.” The articles in the UDHR are affirmations of the rights of persons with disabilities to a life of equal enjoyment and rights, as well as reaffirmation of the principles of dignity and justice for all of us.
There are an estimated 650 million persons with disabilities around the world today, or about ten percent of the world’s population, and the convention both protects and promotes the rights of the human beings around the world who experience disability. The convention protects our rights while promoting them in our various civil, economic, cultural social and political environments around the world, yet we still face barriers to participation, and often are forced to live in the margins of society. We are routinely denied even basic rights such as freedom of expression, the ability to express even our opinion, legal recognition or legal capacity, the right to vote, or the ability to participate in the political processes of which we are a part. As people with disabilities, many of us are still forced into institutions, something that is a direct violation of our right to participate in the community and freedom of movement.
More than 400 million persons with disabilities live in impoverished nations, about eighty percent of us. In these nations there is an unemployment rate among persons with disabilities of 80% to 90% among people of working age in developing countries, and 50% to 70% in industrialized nations! Educational rights and healthcare rights are routinely denied in these nations, and 90% of the children with disabilities in developing nations do not attend school, according to UNESCO. There might be no continued marginalization of persons with disabilities, it is simply unacceptable. Twenty million women acquire disabilities as a result of complications during either pregnancy or childbirth alone.
The year 2008 finds the International Day of Persons with Disabilities bringing forth a loud, clear, year-long call for celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights along with its theme of, “Dignity and Justice for Most of Us.” The International Day of Persons with Disabilities is extremely important to the world as a whole because it is a day for persons with disabilities to represent the world. We are a call for the world to further establish Dignity and Justice in the civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights prompted by the Convention. We are here to tell the world that it is time to commit to the ratification and full implementation of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.
Perhaps the most fundamental obligation in the Convention states that National Law needs to guarantee the enjoyment of the rights in the Convention itself. Individual State Parties need to consider the best ways to give effect to the rights guaranteed by the Convention in their own domestic laws, and implement legislation including terms of the Convention, or specify reference to them, so that they clearly indicate that the legislation is meant to be interpreted in accordance with the spirit and letter of the Convention. The Convention, and keeping to it, is highly important.
Of course legislation alone will not be enough to make sure that persons with disabilities are able to enjoy their human rights, and States need to formulate policies and programs that are effective and will transform the provisions of the Convention into practices that have actual impact on our lives. There is an item in the Convention, Article 33, which explains that States have to set up national focal points in order to monitor the implementation of the Convention’s precepts, as well as establishing independent monitoring mechanisms that usually take the form of national human rights institutions.
Monitoring is extremely important, in fact essential, to make certain the full participation of societies and persons with disabilities and the organizations that represent them. Monitoring is something that is achieved through the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Conference of States Parties. The Conference of States Parties first met on October 31st, and met again on November 3rd, 2008.
Canada is one nation that is playing a leadership role in the world where ensuring that justice and dignity for persons with disabilities is being pursued. Other nations are working with the example that Canada is providing, as well as paying attention to the new Conventions. International Day of Persons with Disabilities is making a good difference in the world, and the lives of large numbers of people. We are proud of whom we are, and happy to have you join us in the effort to improve the world we live in.


What Is A Criminal Attorney

If you’ve been falsely accused of a crhyme, it is likely you don’t think any price is too high to pay for your freedom. But, when money does matter, it is important not to sacrifice the quality of your criminal attorney just to meet a budget.

If you’re truly innocent, it is very likely a good criminal attorney can get you off. Going for a discount rate wouldn’t be wise, but there are ways to keep costs at a minimum or even recoup them after a win in court. As long as you insist on finding a criminal attorney that displays any basic, but very important, traits, you should be okay with your hire even if his or her rates are less than others.

Should money be an issue in hiring a criminal attorney, consider these things:

* Stay clear of the ‘best of the best’ if you cannot afford them. Instead, settle for a criminal attorney that displays the traits of a good criminal defense lawyer. This means someone with years of experience in the law, a person whoever has perhaps also been a prosecutor and maybe even someone with a minimal (but existent) track record in trial courts. Newer criminal attorneys are likely to cost less, but that doesn’t mean they will be awful. Trial experience and former prosecution work are vital traits in that they ensure the criminal attorney you’re thinking of hiring knows his or her way around a criminal case.
* Consider going with the attorney provided you by the courts if: that attorney has a good track record, shows a genuine concern about you and your case, really seems to believe your side of the story. If these three things are not present, you might need to try and hire a criminal attorney on your own if it is at all possible. Public defenders can be fantastic lawyers, but that doesn’t mean all of them are – similar to private criminal attorneys.
* Find a lawyer with a good background whoever is willing to wait on payments until the case’s outcome is decided or is at least willing to work with you. Some lawyers will work on a retainer that’s fair and wait to recover costs for false arrest at a later date.
* Plan to recover costs if you clearly are not guilty of the crhyme you’ve been accused of.

As you look for a criminal lawyer, remember there are certain traits to look for. You need a criminal lawyer who:

* Has experience in the field.
* Understands how the prosecution works.
* Is versed in trial law, as well.
* Is open with the lines of communication and clearly listens to you and your input on the case.
* Treats you like a person and not a ‘criminal.’
* Keeps you apprised of the case as it progresses.
* Fights for your side without prejudice.

Finding a good criminal lawyer can be a expensive venture, but there are ways to keep it more affordable without sacrificing quality. If you make sure experience and communication are present with your criminal lawyer, you should be okay even if you have not been able to hire the ‘best of the best.’


How Do I Apply For Disability Benefits

What is a State Disability Insurance? Also known as SDI, it is a partial wage for workers. This is mandated by the State and is funded by the deductions from the employee’s payroll. SDI offers short-term benefits that are affordable to eligible workers who are going through a loss of wages because they cannot work.

Their reasons for their not being able to work can be non-work related illnesses or they are injured. They can also be pregnant or have just given birth.

Employees are covered by the State Disability Insurance. But there are any employees that are exempted from these. Examples are the railroad employees. In fact, the non-profit agencies’ employees claim religious exemptions.

There are five states that offer disability insurance programs. These are California, New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Hawaii. One commonwealth also provide the same benefits.

This is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Each state has their own operations of the programs.
Generally, here are the benefits of State Disability Insurance

1. It covers the travels of the employees. However the coverage is not dependent when the employee is sticking with a particular employer.

2. This is mandatory for most of the workers in the specific state.

3. It is non-exclusionary. Anyone who is eligible cannot have his coverage be denied or canceled due to health risk factors, hazardous employment, or pre-existing conditions.

4. State Disability Insurance may reach up to 52 weeks of benefits. It has a waiting period of seven days.

5. The payroll deduction for all the employees who are covered are based on a single contribution rate.

Here are the SDI Plans.

1. State plan. Majority of employers have this plan. Most of the information that is provided on the insurance is patterned to the policies of the state.

2. Voluntary Plan. This is a private plan that has been approved by the EDD. It may be a substitute for the State Plan. Employee groups as well as the employers can make their own voluntary plans if they both agree to do.

3. Elective coverage. Employers and self-employed people, even those general partners, may apply for coverage. However, the calculation of the benefits they’d get and how much coverage they would acquire is similar to those of the employees whose benefits and coverage have been mandated by the State Plan.

The cost of participating can be calculated at the EDD Employment Tax Office. In this particular plan, the cost is different from one employee to the next. It depends on the payroll.


Most Common Va Disability Claims

Veterans that are obtaining disability benefits from the VA usually are amazed to discover that it may not be as easy to be entitled to Social Security Disability benefits. Nonetheless, the reality is that there’s normally no reason why a totally disabled vet having VA handicap positive aspects cannot also get disability benefits from the SSA. On the other hand, these are a couple of several applications with a couple of completely different application and qualification procedures. Why are you able to be rejected by Social Security Disability although not the Veterans Disability program? Let’s have a look at these two applications.
The Perseverance Process for VA Benefits and SSD Benefits

To be eligible for a Veterans benefits, a person cannot have already been dishonorably dismissed from the military and they should establish that their accidental injuries were definitely directly related to their military duties. This is a two-step method with the VA method and is not as challenging to make it through because SSD process (which is a five-step procedure). In order to be eligible for SSD, one must show that their personal injury or disability drops within the listing of the Social Security authorized health conditions for receiving benefits and/or that they fulfill a grid guideline. Generally, the injury should have prompted a failure to keep down any sort of prior employment and frequently other employment at the same time.

Because Social Security Disability benefits are more difficult to get, don’t be surprised if the initial application is refused, if you are already getting VA benefits. You could be able to obtain benefits from both applications, however your disability should be confirmed within the individual program’s qualifications desires.

Working A Work

One of the biggest differences between your VA plan and the Social Security Disability program is the capability to work. With VA benefits it could be easy for someone to carry out any work exercise (when they is ready) but still receive benefits. But with SSD, one needs to confirm that they cannot be gainfully carried out on the regular basis to be able to be eligible for benefits.

Benefit Sums

It’s also common for that VA system to award more financial benefits compared to the SSD program. On average, a person might obtain regarding $2700 each mo through the VA program, but only around $1100 mostly all mo with the SSD system.

Appealing a Rejected Application

If you feel you might be eligible to get benefits from each courses as well as your Social Security Disability application is rejected, then you’ll have to go with the appeal course of action. Don’t think by yourself if this takes place to you, as more than 70% of applications to the SSD are declined on a initially try!

The best thing you could be able to perform to enhance your chances of success is to hire a attorney who specializes in Social Security Disability law. They ought to help you collect the data and proof had to present your own case, and also show you from the appeals method should you be refused.

Pondering the best place to go with your social security disability and working? The Law Practice of DL Hood gives you over 20 years expertise in personal injury in South Carolina. We are here to assist you and an assessment is totally free.


Advocates For Social Security Disability

If you have been requested to attend a Social Security Disability hearing and you do not have any legal representation like a SSDI Advocate or Attorney you may delay or even jeopardize your chances of winning your case to collect the benefits you need.

Here is a very strong argument that you may not have heard before when it comes to getting adequate representation from disability advocates, and it happens to be based on experience from advocates that have been in the business for well over a decade.

A disability advocate was contacted by a claimant that was denied during their SSDI hearing. The advocate received a copy of the tape from the hearing, as all live disability hearings are recorded for just this purpose. When the advocate listened to the audio tape, he noticed a few things that stood out immediately as proof that having an advocate on your side can really make a difference.

The hearing in question lasted less than a total of ten minutes, despite the fact that the average hearing typically goes for at least thirty minutes. When a hearing doesn’t even take twenty minutes, red flags are thrown up.

During the hearing in question, the judge never made an effort to advise the claimant that she had a right to fair representation.

Finally, the judge did not take the time to ask the claimant about any recent medical treatment since her initial application, nor did he try to gather any updated medical information so that her record could be updated, meaning that the SSA did not have her most recent information on file, and was lacking evidence that could have helped her in this process.

If this claimant had an attorney or another representative with her, this would not have been allowed to happen. She would have had someone on her side who could have informed her of her options, and made sure that the judge had all of the pertinent information, old and new.

From here, then, you have a choice between two options. There are advocates that will work to represent the claimants, or you have the choice to choose an attorney to hire, for this you can choose a lawyer that commonly handles these claims or one who is not a specialist in this line of law.

Neither of these options can provide you with a guarantee that they will be successful in securing the benefits that you are making the application for. This legal representation will guarantee that you will be ready for your hearing and properly prepared. One of the most important things you can do when you apply for SSDI benefits is use these experts because they will know what and how to look for things that is in the best interest to your case.

There is no reason not to come equipped with an advocate on your side when applying for SSDI or appealing a decision regarding your SSDI and SSI benefits. Having someone on your side that knows what they are doing is the best way to ensure that you are prepared when applying for or appealing a Social Security Disability Insurance decision.


Questions About Social Security Benefits

Answers to Common Questions about Identity Theft

It’s every person’s worst nightmare. You’re simply going about your daily routine, living your life and minding your own business, when you receive a phone call from a bill collector. He says you owe thousands of dollars on a credit card you did not even know you had. Or maybe you apply for a loan and are shocked to discover that you’re turned down because, even though you pay each of your bills on time, you have a low credit score. Perhaps you go online to check your savings account balance and find that you’ve been cleaned out. In other words, while you’ve been engaged in the business of living, you’ve become a victim of identity theft. If you think that these are far-fetched scenarios, think again. Thirteen people have their identities stolen every single minute. Here, then, are answers to common questions about identity theft.

1. Am I safe as long as I don’t give out my personal information over the phone or online?

Not at all. Take a minute to think about the people, organizations, and companies that have your personal information. Banks, other financial institutions and professionals, medical professionals, hospitals, schools, and retail merchants all store your personal information electronically. In other words, you really don’t control access to your information. If an identity thief breaches a bank’s, school’s, or insurance company’s security system, they will have access to vital information. Over the past several years, millions of credit card numbers, bank account information, social security numbers, and employee records have been stolen from trusted institutions.

2. Can I prevent identity theft?

No, you really cannot prevent identity theft. Your personal information is in the hands of too many institutions and organizations; it’s like trying to close the barn door after the horse gets out. There are steps you can take that will prevent any avenues of identity theft (such as shredding papers with personal information that you’d normally throw out), but that’s just the tip of the iceberg.

3. Isn’t credit fraud the most prevalent kind of identity theft?

Contrary to popular belief, only about a third of identity thefts relate to credit fraud. Even if you are impeccable about credit monitoring, it will not defend against someone using your personal information for things like medical expenses, checking accounts, driver’s licenses, tax fraud, passports, and social security benefits.

4. What’s the best way to get true identity protection?

The best way to get true identity protection is through a service that uses a multi-pronged approach. This involves credit monitoring that looks for signs of likely fraud and identity monitoring that screens public records and national databases for identity thieves that are using your name and social security number. In addition, the service should have extensive expertise in full identity recovery, including coordination with law enforcement agencies, should you become the victim of identity theft. It should also provide you with expense reimbursement insurance that covers all of the members of your family. The service you choose should also supply you with your personalized identity risk score that rates your chances of becoming a victim of identity theft. Only then will you be able to have the peace of mind knowing that you have done everything you can to defend yourself against identity theft.


Cheap Lawyers For Child Custody

Every Wisconsin child custody lawyer knows that this is one of the cases where people are likely to do things that they have not done before or thought they are not capable of. With divorce and child custody cases not having the satisfactory results that they should have, parents turn to desperate means of getting their children back.

For sure, you do not want these things to happen. Not only will it have negative effects on your child, it will also cause you more trouble than you originally have. The best and the only solution for this problem is to avail of the services of good Wisconsin child custody lawyer.

Lawyers in Wisconsin are already aware of the fact that parents tend to kidnap their children and take them as far away from the other parent as possible one their child custody case has not been served well. This is the only way to do it because these parents know that their children are better off with them.

Sometimes the law is not always in favor of those who want to win. As they say, you can never win them all. But if you have a Wisconsin child custody lawyer to help you in the proceedings, then you will realize that whatever decision the court have made is what is best. And since you have presented a likewise good case, you will absolutely be assured that justice have been done, even if it is not for your favor.

In the process of your divorce file, it is important that you hire a Wisconsin lawyer with enough knowledge about how child custody works. It follows that after the divorce has been filed, what follows next would be the battle on who should have the custody of the children.

This is the very same reason why the Wisconsin lawyer you choose should have the expertise and experience in handling child custody cases. Take note that the decision that will be made is not on a temporary basis. It will dictate the future that your children will have for the rest of their lives. If you love your children that much, you will go through all the measures to ensure that will be put in the proper place that they deserve.

The Wisconsin child custody lawyer should know enough about certain laws that apply for certain situations. For example, there are laws that are being followed by authorities whenever a child is kidnapped by his or her parent.

The lawyer should tell the parents about those states that do not allow authorities to recover the child if he is in the hands of another parent. Knowing about these things will make the parents aware of precautions that should be taken to avoid this kind of situation from happening.

The Wisconsin child custody lawyer should also dictate the desperate steps that parents are capable of with regards to getting their children. This will evidently prepare them for any unfortunate things from happening. Anticipation is better than being surprised and frustrated when disputes occur.

A Wisconsin child custody lawyer that has the necessary experience needed in solving disputes that might arise is what you should look for. As far the reasoning is concerned, you should be aware of the things that will help you win your case, but also the things that you need to do after the case is finished. Only your Wisconsin lawyer has the capability to tell you about what and what you should not do.